Additional Resources

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Additional Resources

In the last five years research into opportunities for evaluating adaptation progress has developed significantly. Below is a collection of background materials, frameworks, and examples that demonstrate challenges and opportunities for measuring adaptation impacts at both the project level and aggregate policy level. They are sourced from non-governmental organizations, aid groups, and government agencies that are actively engaged in monitoring and evaluation for adaptation policies, programmes, and initiatives. These documents are intended to provide further information on conceptual, methodological, and practical issues concerning adaptation tracking for both progress and outcome measurements. Additional resources will be added to this collection as they come to our attention.

 

Workshop on the monitoring and evaluation of adaptation

Authors: Adaptation Committee, UNFCCC

Year: 2013

Policy-level; Project-level

A background note on the current state of M&E in adaptation, including concepts, approaches, methodological challenges, tools and frameworks, and evaluations.


Report on the workshop on the monitoring and evaluation of adaptation

Authors: Adaptation Committee, UNFCCC

Year: 2014

Policy-level; Project-level

A report from the fifth meeting of the Adaptation Committee that considers linkages between project-level evaluations and national-level assessments, indicator development, and institutional learning from M&E. Follows up on the workshop on the monitoring and evaluation of adaptation (2013).


Synthesis report on efforts undertaken to monitor and evaluate the implementation of adaptation projects, policies and programmes and the costs and effectiveness of completed projects, policies and programmes, and views on lessons learned, good practices, gaps and needs

Authors: UNFCCC

Year: 2010

Policy-level; Project-level

A synthesis of UNFCCC Party and organization efforts on M&E and adaptation indicators for adaptation projects, policies, and programmes. Provides examines of M&E frameworks from various national-level governments.


Evaluation of Adaptation to Climate Change from a Development Perspective

Authors: Merylyn McKenzie Hedger, Tom Mitchell, Jennifer Leavy, Martin Greeley, Anna Downie for Institute of Development Studies and Lisa Horrocks for AEA Group

Year: 2008

Project-level 

An assessment of the current state of evaluation techniques for adaptation projects. Additionally considers the relationship between adaptation evaluation and development and opportunities for integrating evaluations within existing evaluation frameworks.


Learning to ADAPT: Monitoring and evaluation approaches in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction – Challenges, gaps and ways forward

Authors: Paula Silva Villanueva for Institute of Development Studies

Year: 2010

Project-level

Examines different approaches to evaluation, including input-output-outcome based evaluations, process-based evaluations, evaluation of behavioural chance, and economic evaluations. Also considers challenges posed by climate change to traditional evaluation.


Making Adaptation Count: Concepts and Options for Monitoring and Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation

Authors: GIZ

Year: 2011

Describes steps in the M&E process within a development context with a focus on indicator selection.


Monitoring & evaluation for climate change adaptation: A synthesis of tools, frameworks and approaches

Authors: Dennis Bours, Colleen McGinn, Patrick Pringle

Year: 2013

Policy-level, Project-level 

Provides a synthesis of M&E frameworks for specialists needing guidance in choosing an appropriate approach. Examines areas of overlap and differences in approach, methodology, and intended audience.


Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for Adaptation to Climate Change

Author: United Nations Development Programme

Year: 2007

Project-level

A draft M&E framework for UNDP-GEF adaptation projects, which aim to mitigate adverse impacts of climate change on the Millennium Development Goals. The framework is organized around seven themes: 1) Agriculture/food security; 2) Water resources and quality; 3) Public health; 4) Disaster risk management; 5) Coastal zone management; 6) Natural resources management; and 7) Infrastructure.


Auditing the Government Response to Climate Change: Guidance for Supreme Audit Institutions

Author: INTOSAI Working Group on Environmental Auditing

Year: 2010

Policy-level

A guide to designing climate change audits intended to help improve government performance and management in the area of climate change policy. The auditing process is organized into four steps: 1) Understand climate change-related problems and their impacts; 2) Understand the government’s response to climate change; 3) Choose audit topics and priorities; and 4) Design the audit.


Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development: A step-by-step guide

Authors: Nick Brooks, Susannah Fisher for IIED

Year: 2014

Policy-level; Project-level

A dual-track framework for assessing institutional climate risk management and measuring adaptation and development performance. TAMD assesses intervention outputs, shorter-term outcomes, and long-term impacts. The framework is organized into six steps: 1) Scope; 2) Theory of change; 3) Defining and construction indicators; 4) Measuring indicators; 5) Analysing and interpreting results; and 6) Learning.


A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Adaptation to Climate Change

Authors: Haris E. Sanahuja for Climate-Eval, GEF

Year: 2011

Policy-level; Project-level

A practical guide to for improving M&E capacity. Includes a general M&E framework, discussion of challenges and opportunities for M&E, and synthesis of ideas from existing frameworks. The framework is organized into six steps: 1) Setting the context; 2) A shared vision for effective M&E; 3) Identifying key challenges and opportunities; 4) Building on existing programmes and strategies; 5) Identifying planned strategic goals, result and actions; and 6) Creating an action plan for intervention.


Development of Adaptation Indicators

Authors: Mike Harley, Jelle van Minnen for the European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change

Year: 2009

Policy-level; Project-level

Provides a conceptual and practical guide to the development of adaptation indicators. Examines different types of indicators and case studies in the area of biodiversity adaptation at the sector and regional levels.


Additional Result Areas and Indicators for Adaptation Activities

Authors: Green Climate Fund

Year: 2014

Policy-level; Project-level

Provides an overview of performance indicators for the GCF’s key adaptation result areas: 1) Sustainable land use management, agriculture and rural adaptation; 2) Ecosystems and ecosystem-based adaptation; 3) Climate-resilient infrastructure; 4) People, health and well-being; and 5) Approaches to risk-sharing and transfer.


Initial Results Management Framework of the Fund

Authors: Green Climate Fund

Year: 2014

Project-level

A guide to project evaluation intended to complement approaches from the Climate Investment Fund, Global Environment Facility, Adaptation Fund, UNFCCC programmes, and bilateral donor programmes. Includes a logic model for adaptation projects and initial adaptation performance measurement framework designed around eight intended results: 1) Increased resilience and enhanced livelihoods; 2) Increased resilience of health and well-being, and food and water security; 3) Increased resilience of infrastructure and the built environment; 4) Improved resilience of ecosystems; 5) Strengthened government, institutional and regulatory systems for climate-responsive development planning; 6) Increased generation and use of climate information in decision-making; 7) Strengthened adaptive capacity and reduced exposure to climate risks; and 8)Strengthened awareness of climate threats and risk reduction processes.


Updated Results-Based Management Framework for Adaptation to Climate Change Under the Least Developed Countries Fund and the Special Climate Change Fund

Authors: Global Environmental Facility

Year: 2014

Project-level

Operationalizes the revised results framework of the GEF Programming Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change for the Least Developed Countries Fund and Special Climate Change Fund (2014-2018). Aims to address four needs: 1) Comprehensive portfolio-level monitoring and reporting on progress and outcomes; 2) Introduce qualitative tools and methods for portfolio-level monitoring and reporting; 3) Establish appropriate indicators and methods for monitoring progress and outcomes; and 4) Provide greater consistency with tools and methods of other funds, programs, and agencies.


Monitoring and Evaluating Adaptation at Aggregated Levels: A Comparative Analysis of Ten Systems

Authors: GIZ, IISD

Year: 2014

Policy-level

Provides an overview of M&E systems at the portfolio, national, regional, and international levels through a comparison of ten aggregated systems. Aggregated M&E combines findings from assessments at lower levels of analysis (project, sector, district) to provide meta-level information. Selected systems for study include: 1) France: 2011 National Adaptation Plan; 2) Germany: 2008 German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change; 3) Kenya: National Climate Change Action Plan 2013-2017; 4) Mekong River Commission: Adaptation activities in Lower Mekong Basin; 5) Morocco: System for Regional Information on Environment; 6) Nepal: National Climate Change Program; Environment Friendly Local Governance Framework; 7) Norway: 2008 Adaptation Action Plan; 2010 National Vulnerability Assessment; 8) Philippines: 2011 National Climate Change Action Plan; 9) United Kingdom: 2013 National Adaptation Program; and 10) Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (Climate Investment Funds): Development planning in 18 PPCR countries.


Adaptation made to measure: A guidebook to the design and results-based monitoring of climate change adaptation projects

Authors: GIZ

Year: 2012

Project-level

A guide to developing adaptation projects and results frameworks, including monitoring systems. Organized around five steps: 1) Assessing the context for adaptation; 2) Identifying the contribution to adaptation; 3) Devising the strategic orientation; 4) Defining indicators and setting a baseline; and 5) Operationalising the results-based monitoring system.


Monitoring and Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation: Methodological Approaches

Authors: Ayesha Dinshaw, Susannah Fisher, Heather McGray, Neha Rai, Johan Schaar for OECD

Year: 2014

Project-level

Examines approaches to assessing attribution in adaptation implementation, establishing baselines and targets, and accommodating long time horizons.


AdaptME Toolkit: Adaptation Monitoring and Evaluation

Authors: Patrick Pringle, Kate Lonsdale, Megan Gawith, Mark Goldthorpe, Roger Street for UKCIP

Year: 2011

Project-level 

A framework to guide organizations in defining evaluation purpose and objective, overcoming challenges in adaptation evaluation, considering alternative measurement tools, identifying good practices, and prioritizing evaluation needs.


Adaptation to climate change- are governments prepared? A cooperative audit

Authors: EUROSAI Working Group on Environmental Auditing

Year: 2012

Policy-level

A synthesis of eight national audit reports from Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, and Ukraine. The report examines whether these governments are prepared for climate change based on national-level adaptation policies.


National Adaptation Planning: Lessons for OECD Countries

Authors: Michael Mullan, Nicholas Kingsmill, Arnoldo Matus Kramer, Shardul Agrawala for OECD

Year: 2013

Policy-level

Examines lessons learned from national adaptation planning in OECD countries using national communications to the UNFCCC, country case studies (Mexico, United Kingdom, United States), and an OECD Policy Forum on Adaptation.


Europe Adapts to Climate Change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

Authors: Rob Swart, Robbert Biesbroek, Svend Binnerup, Timothy R. Carter, Caroline Cowan, Thomas Henrichs, Sophie Loquen, Hanna Mela, Michael Morecroft, Moritz Reese, Daniela Rey

Year: 2009

Policy-level 

Assesses European countries with formal national adaptation strategies. Examines drivers of NAS development, differences in how adaptation is framed in national strategies, the science-policy nexus, public communication tools, governance of adaptation across scales, adaptation mainstreaming across sectors, and evaluation mechanisms.